Wednesday, November 21, 2012

Chapter 20: An Industrial Society 1890-1920


Chapter 20: An Industrial Society 1890-1920

1. How did corporations and workers respond to the social and economic turmoil of the late 19th century?
Evidently during the late 19th century the depression had begun to fade away as corporations and workers began to advance technologically. Railroads were built from country to country, factories eliminated unemployment, skyscrapers signified the newly revolutionized production and employment. The internal combustion engine began what is known as today's car. It began as Ford's dream to one day has an automobile society beginning with his affordable Model T. The automobile industry exploded and nearly quadrupled over the years creating was also known as today's assembly line. However production was not the only aspect that had advanced, management too branched off in sophisticated sectors that efficiently managed the workers of big industries. Later on, corporations began approaching management techniques more scientifically.

2. What is meant by the term  'scientific management?
Management had become essential in a time of vast economic and technological advancement. Corporations established a hierarchy to efficiently manage the employees and industries. However one man had a vision of perfection, to reduce the amount of down time and utilize the machines and skilled/unskilled laborers for mass production. Frederick Winslow Taylor examined each and every human task with great analysis, observing "Time and motion" to evaluate each action performed and it's duration. Scientific management was essentially a revolutionized paradigm of the conventional management of laborers.

3. Why were Americans concerned about physical fitness in the 1890's and what remedies did they seek?
In 1899 Theodore Roosevelt wrote an essay "the strenuous life", where he emphasized the importance in testing ones physical strength and endurance through competitive sports as well as recreational activities; hiking, hunting, climbing, running, etc. This articulated a way of life that not only the wealthy elites but also the middle class of America adopted and cherished. Such heightened enthusiasm set the streets for bicyclists, runners, competitive sports, physical fitness, and outdoor activities. Women even began to lose their corsets and dresses to wear more comfortable sportier apparel.

4. In what ways were immigrants welcomed and in what ways did Americans attempt to bar the entry of migrants in this period?
During the late 19th century, the technological and economic growth had become exponential. European and Asian immigrants had suffered from poverty, religious execution, and industrialization that diminished their market and rural areas. As a result, immigrants sought to utilize the "land of opportunity" to attain a higher economic standing. Many had a mindset of returning, as they did not see Americas as home. This explained the vast immigration of men as opposed to women and children. However, racial prejudice did in fact bar much of a specific group of immigrants. The Chinese exclusion act of 1882 restricted Americas two largest migrant groups from settling, Japanese and Chinese.

Terms:

Henry Ford:
Beginning as an eccentric 37-year-old mechanic who built race cars, Tom ford had a dream to create an automobile civilization. Soon enough he produced his first Model T that was affordable and reliable enough to travel hundreds of miles without a single service. Inevitably his car sold by the millions and he watched his dream come true. Amongst the simplification and advancement of transportation came benefits in the job market. His stimulus to the economy nearly eliminated unemployment as well as he built several factories to produce the many materials and resources required to produce his cars. Through out the factories the first assembly line was also established simplifying the efficiency of production amongst workers and specialized laborers.

James Buchanan Duke:
During a time domestic markets had much potential but could not market or distribute adequately, James Duke set the example with his aggressive methods. Renown for being America's smoking tobacco manufacturer, James duke transformed the cigarette into one of the best selling commodities. He invested greatly in Bonsack cigarette machines that produced vast amounts  of about 120k cigarettes a day. To correlate with his vast production of products he set out regional sales officers and sales representatives to disperse the market throughout the country. As a result, sales sky rocketed and in order to sustain the high demand, Duke merged with four competitors to make American Tobacco Company.

J.P. Morgan:
An investment banker of the late 19th century and early 20th century who possessed capital and financial skills to engineer complex stock transfers and renegotiations for mergers. He worked with Andrew Carnegie to reform the U.S. Steel Corp.
Frederick Winslow Taylor:

Gospel of wealth:
Originally coined and epitomized by the steel baron, Andrew Carnegie, he essentially established for the wealthy that all income in excess of necessities were to be a "trust fund" for their community. Andrew himself withdrew from his company and continued his philanthropic ventures as he set the example for several other renowned philanthropists.

Old immigrants:
A term that came into play in the late 19th century to distinguish between the incoming immigrants and those who had settle prior to 1880. They were referred to as racially fit, culturally sophisticated, and politically mature. They came from Northwestern Europe: Great Britain, Scandinavia, and Germany.

New Immigrants:
A term that came into play in the late 19th century to distinguish between the incoming immigrants and those who had settle prior to 1880. They were referred to as racially inferior, culturally impoverished, and incapable of assimilating to American culture/traditions. However both came for the same reasons, they were either being religious persecute or need to escape from their falling economy.

Chinese Exclusion Act:
With the vast flow of immigrants, and the two most common and growing being the Japanese and Chinese; in 1882 the U.S. government excluded immigration of Chinese/Japanese laborers into the US. The exclusions carried on until the 1950's. The rural population grew faster in those countries than the labor requirements of the agricultural sector. Essentially they had similar motive to the European to flee the country.

AFL:
Essentially a union within a union, the American Federation of Labor fought for the rights, working conditions, and wages of skilled laborers. It's president, Samuel Gompers, led the way to much growth as many unskilled laborers and unions joined. They emphasized bread and butter issues and had prejudice against blacks and unskilled laborers.

IWW:
As the AFL failed to organize the laborers, immigrants sought out to find other unions. One of the most significant led by "big bill" was the Industrial Workers of the World. It rejected AFL's principle of craft organization and countered with the hope of one big union. Against capitalism, IWW refused to sign employer agreements stating that it would further benefit the capitalist system and trap workers into capitalist properties that should have been overthrown. The Ludlow massacre and IWW protests that occurred exemplified that the workers and employers did not yet have a way of peacefully resolving their dilemmas.

Margaret Sanger:
A social activists, feminist, author of "Woman Rebel, and advocate of birth control, lectured women to enjoy sexual relations without worrying of pregnancy. Amongst one of the first feminists she was put on trial for dispersing her advocating of birth control via mail.

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